Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Watch the film A Taste of Honey (1961). Analyze the film as a work of Movie Review

Watch the film A Taste of Honey (1961). Analyze the film as a work of Kitchen Sink Realism and discuss the work in light of questions of class, gender and race in 1950s Britain - Movie Review Example The director has been very clever in handling the movie because body language says more than meet the words. Tony Richardson is also known for producing other movies like Jean Giraudx’s The Apollo of Bellac. He won an Academy award in 1964 for Best Director of the film Tom Jones. Dora Bryan (Helena), Jo’s mother, is a very selfish woman who is in constant pursuit of her own happiness. You can tell this by the way she combs her hair, puts on her lipstick or light the cigarette. Dora Bryan is also known for her role in Absolutely Fabulous. She won BAFTA awards as Best Actress in A Taste of Honey. Rita Tushingham, also known as Jo, plays the role of an adolescent girl who is also a working class. Her wide eyes show a mixture of fear and innocence. She is aware of her mother’s lack of love and she expresses this by bending her shoulders. She generally carries the weight of being unwanted. Rita Tushingham is known for her supporting roles in The Knack, Doctor Zhivago, just to mention a few. She was nominated Best Actress (BAFTA) in 1966 and also in 1962 Most Promising Newcomer for her role in ‘A Taste of Honey’. This movie is all about black and white people, gay and straight, mothers and daughters. Jo is a 17-year old school girl who lives wither promiscuous and domineering mother, Helen. Jo was longing for love and attention from her mother only for things to get worse between the two of them when her mother enters into a new relationship. This latest ‘romance’ drives Jo out of their apartment and she finds herself in the streets. She later spends the night with a black sailor who ended up impregnating her. Jo’s mother decides to abandon her and move in with her lover after which Jo finds a job and a room for herself. She then meets Geoffrey co-worker who is a shy and lonely homosexual and they agree to share a flat. She discovers later that she is pregnant with the sailor’s child and Geoffrey returns a favor by caring for

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Most Influential Socialist Thinkers Of Time

Most Influential Socialist Thinkers Of Time The philosopher, social scientist, historian and revolutionary, Karl Marx, is without a doubt the most influential socialist thinker to emerge in the 19th century. Although he was largely ignored by scholars in his own lifetime, his social, economic and political ideas gained rapid acceptance in the socialist movement after his death in 1883. Until quite recently almost half the population of the world lived under regimes that claim to be Marxist. This very success, however, has meant that the original ideas of Marx have often been modified and his meanings adapted to a great variety of political circumstances. In addition, the fact that Marx delayed publication of many of his writings meant that is been only recently that scholars had the opportunity to appreciate Marxs intellectual stature. It is difficult to know what effect this would have on his later philosophy, but we do know that Marx would be antithetical to religious belief, at one time pronouncing it, the opiate of the masses After schooling in Trier (1830-35), Marx entered Bonn University to study law. At university he spent much of his time socialising and running up large debts. His father was horrified when he discovered that Karl had been wounded in a duel. Heinrich Marx agreed to pay off his sons debts but insisted that he moved to the more sedate Berlin University. Educated in the best universities in Germany at Bonn, Berlin and Jena, he was greatly influenced by the most prominent scholar of the previous generation, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. As youth turned to middle age, Karl Marxs views became more radical and finally hardened into the body of thought we know today. His journey to this point took him out of Germany where the newspaper he edited, the Rheinische Zeitung, was suppressed by the Government. He moved to Paris in 1843 and later to Brussels in 1845. Marx himself considered his theory of surplus-value his most important contribution to the progress of economic analysis (Marx, letter to Engels of 24 August 1867). It is through this theory that the wide scope of his sociological and historical thought enables him simultaneously to place the capitalist mode of production in his historical context, and to find the root of its inner economic contradictions and its laws of motion in the specific relations of production on which it is based Marx was partial to Hegel and his theories and was influenced by Hegels views that history was a dialectical process. He did not adhere to Hegels spirituality . He was also influenced by Fuerbach, Saint-Simon, Proudhon and Bakunin. While living in Paris, he began to associate with the working clasas for the first time. He began to formulate his thought that revolution was the key to achieving balance between the upper class and the working class. He wrote and spoke on social change through revolution. He believed that there was great energy between proleterians and capitalists. Marx began to appeal to more of the common people during the early depression days. American educatin became aware of soviet education reforms during the 1920s and through George S. Counts who visited Russia and brought their educational system of reform to light in America. But only a mere 10 years later, American educators did not think societ education was good. The theory associated with Marxism was developed in mid-19th century Europe by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Although Marx and Engels did not write widely about education, they developed theoretical perspectives on modern societies that have been used to highlight the social functions of education and their concepts and methods have served to both theorize and criticize education in the reproduction of capitalist societies, and to support projects of alternative education. In this study, I will first briefly sketch the classical perspectives of Marx and Engels, highlighting the place of education in their work. Then, I lay out the way that Marxian perspectives on education were developed in the Frankfurt School critical theory, British cultural studies, and other neo- Marxian and post-Marxian approaches grouped under the label of critical pedagogy, that emerged from the work of Paulo Freire and is now global in scope. I argue that Marxism provides influential and robust perspectives on education, still of use, but that classical Marxism has certain omissions and limitations that contemporary theories of society and education need to overcome. The young Marx and Engels thus perceived that without education the working class was condemned to lives of drudgery and death, but that with education they had a chance to create a better life. In their famous 1848 Communist Manifesto, Marx and Engels argued that growing economic crises would throw ever more segments of the middle classes, and the older peasant and artisan classes, into the impoverished situation of the proletariat and would thus produce a unified working class, at least one with interests in common. They declared that the bourgeois class is constantly battling against the older feudal powers, among its own segments, and against the foreign bourgeoisie, and thus enlists the proletariat as its ally. Consequently, the proletariat gains education and experience which it can use to fight the ruling class. The Marxist approach to education is broad constuctivist and emphasises activity, collaboration and critique, rather than passive absorption of knowledge, emulation of elders and conformism; it is student-centred rather than teacher centred, but recognises that education cannot transcend the problems and capabilities of the society in which it is located. The Soviet, Chinese, and other Communist states were at most only partly structured along Marxist classless lines, and while such Communist leaders as Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, Joseph Stalin, and Mao Zedong staunchly claimed Marxist orthodoxy for their pronouncements, they in fact greatly stretched the doctrine in attempting to mold it to their own uses. The evolution of varied forms of welfare capitalism, the improved condition of workers in industrial societies, and the recent demise of the Communist bloc in Eastern Europe and Central Asia have tended to discredit Marxs dire and deterministic economic predictions. The Soviet and Chinese Communist regimes did not result in the disappearance of the state, but in the erection of huge, monolithic, and largely inefficient state structures. In recent years, many Western intellectuals have championed Marxism and repudiated Communism, objecting to the manner in which the two terms are often used interchangeably. A number have turned to Marxs other writings and explored the present-day value of such Marxist concepts as alienation. Among prominent Western Marxists were the Hungarian philosopher Gyà ¶rgy Lukaisand the Italian political philosopher Antonio Gramsci, both of whom viewed Marxism as a liberation from the rule of political economy and believed in its relationship to the social consciousness. Marxisms influence can be found in disciplines as diverse as economics, history, art, literary criticism, and sociology. German sociologist Max Weber, Frankfurt school theorists such as Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer, British economist Joan Robinson, German dramatist Bertolt Brecht, British literary critic Frederic Jameson, and the French historians of the Annales school have all produced work drawn from Marxist perspectiv es.

Monday, January 20, 2020

anger :: essays research papers

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  ANGER Anger is a healthy emotion when it is expressed appropriately. When it is not, it can have devastating effects. Anger is at the root of many personal and social problems, e.g., child abuse, domestic violence, physical and verbal abuse, and community violence. Problematic interpersonal relations may also disrupt employment activities because of the interference of anger on workplace performance. Left unchecked, anger can destroy relationships, obstruct problem solving skills, and increase social withdrawal. Anger also affects our physical health. For example, it can tax our immune system; contribute to headaches, migraines, severe gastrointestinal symptoms, hypertension, and coronary artery disease. Anger is a healthy and valid emotion. But many of us are taught not to express or show our anger. This often leaves us feeling frustrated and unable to express how we feel inside. As a result, some of us store and suppress our anger, while others may express it, but in negative and unhealthy ways. Individual counseling sessions will assist you in learning how to express and communicate your anger in positive and effective ways. Anger is 'an emotional state that varies in intensity from mild irritation to intense fury and rage,' according to Charles Spielberger, Ph.D., a psychologist who specializes in the study of anger. Like other emotions, it is accompanied by physiological and biological changes; when you get angry, your heart rate and blood pressure go up, as does the level of your energy hormones, adrenalin and/nor adrenalin. Anger can be caused by both external and internal events. You could be angry with a specific person (Such as a coworker or supervisor) or event (a traffic jam, a canceled flight), or worrying or brooding about your personal problems could cause your anger. Memories of traumatic or enraging events can also trigger angry feelings. The instinctive, natural way to express anger is to respond aggressively. Anger is a natural, adaptive response to threats; it inspires powerful, often aggressive, feelings and behaviors, which allow us to fight and to defend ourselves when we are attacked. A certain amount of anger, therefore, is necessary to our survival. On the other hand, we can't physically lash out at every person or object that irritates or annoys us; laws, social norms and common sense place limits on how far our anger can take us. People use a variety of both conscious and unconscious processes to deal with their angry feelings. The three main approaches are expressing, suppressing, and calming. Expressing your angry feelings in an assertive --not aggressive -- manner is the healthiest way to express anger. To do this, you have to learn how to make clear what your needs are, and how to get them

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Comparison Between the Cost of Living in Ecuador and the United States

The Cost of Living between Ecuador and the United States The cost of living between Ecuador and the United States shows several differences, but this essay is going to focus on two of the most common ones. The first one is the rental price of an apartment and the second one is the cost of clothing and shoes. First, the rental price of an apartment of three bedrooms in Ecuador is around 500 dollars; on the other hand, this cost is much higher in the United States; actually, an American family has to pay about 1500 dollars for renting an apartment with these characteristics.In short, renting an apartment in Ecuador is three times less expensive than renting it in the United States. Second, the price of the clothing and the shoes is extremely expensive in Ecuador, for example: if a person wants to buy one pair of Nike shoes, that person has to pay about 300 dollars, whereas in the United States if someone buys the same pair of shoes, he/she pays around 150 dollars.Moreover, an American woman can get a Calvin Klein coat paying 250 dollars, while in Ecuador a woman has to pay almost 1000 dollars for getting the same piece of clothing. In brief, both the price of clothing and the cost of shoes are more accessible in the United States than in Ecuador. In conclusion, both Ecuador and the United States display certain differences in the cost of living but the most popular are the ones related to the rental price of an apartment and the cost of the clothes and shoes.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

A Taste Of Place Ant 300 Food And Culture - 1425 Words

A Taste of Place ANT 300: Food and Culture Mena Boyah In Amy Trubek’s ethnography A Taste of Place the recurring theme in this ethnography is the French word terroir. Terroir is a word that isn’t easily translatable but when it is translated it is simply: the complete natural environment in which a particular food is produced, the factors that affect this are soil, climate, and topography. Terroir in simpler terms is all about the locality of a particular farm, crop, or food dish. This locality is what The Common Ground Fair is all about. Even before we begin tasting the food that Maine has produced there are specific thoughts that come to mind when we think of Maine. For me those thoughts are: flannels, beards, Carharts, L.L. Bean but more specifically Bean Boots, Potatoes, Lobster, Trees and lots of them, and a particular form of hardiness and self reliance. All of these thoughts are important but the last one is probably the most, I say this because upon entering The Common Ground Fair all of these thought were present right in front of us. I mention a particular sense of self reliance because The Common Ground fair is the epicenter of selfreliance and rural life. The folks that attend this three day event usually pick out talks and classes that they wish to attend and fill their day with a full schedule to get the most out of the fair as possible. Upon entering theShow MoreRelatedGlobal Business Cultural Analysis: China Essay4992 Words   |  20 PagesAnalysis: China Terry Lushbaugh BUSI 604 International Business Liberty University Abstract The following examines the nation of China and its trade relations with the world, particularly the United States. The focus is primarily on China’s culture and how it impacts business dealings with other countries. Areas examined include: Religion, Management Philosophy, and Business Etiquette. Also discussed is China’s growing status as a world super power and how that has impacted the global businessRead MoreNagpur6776 Words   |  28 Pagesform of Gowari stampede deaths. Nagpur is a city with great capabilities to grow and prosper in the coming days. It is very important for State and Central Governments to contribute to the growth, development, prosperity of Nagpur. Nagpur completed 300 years of establishment in the year 2002. A big celebration was organised to mark the event. Climate : As it is located at centre of Indian peninsula far from the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea, Nagpur has a tropical wet and dry climate (Kà ¶ppen climateRead MoreThe Philippine Architecture: Spanish Colonial Period18287 Words   |  74 Pagesformation of our streets, houses, and groupings of each citizen were simply adopted from the Spaniards. Religion is the center of Spanish influence, which was adopted by the Filipinos. In most of Filipinos’ houses, there must exist an altar, a specific place where the Sto. Nià ±os and Saints were positioned. Through this influence, the space inside the typical house of a Filipino was added and later on became divided. In the building types, the main four classifications of each were the Military architectureRead MoreAn Introduction to Hydrophonics and Controlled Environment Agriculture40110 Words   |  161 Pagesnutrient solution with every watering (water + mineral nutrients) with or without an aggregate medium to support the roots (aggregates include sand, gravel, perlite, rockwool, coco coir, etc.) THE ANCIENT PAST: Discoveries in agriculture from 600B.C. to 300 A.D. *600-500 B.C. – The â€Å"Hanging Gardens of Babylon† One of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Possibly one of the first examples of protected agriculture. Built by King Nebuchadnezzar II on the east bank of the Euphrates River in the middle ofRead MoreDesigning a Customer Driven Statergy23698 Words   |  95 Pagessegments and targeting) and how (what positioning or value proposition). Dunkin’ and Starbucks target very different customers, who want very different things from their favorite coffee sho p. Starbucks is strongly positioned as a sort of high-brow â€Å"third place†Ã¢â‚¬â€outside the home and office—featuring couches, eclectic music, wireless Internet access, and art-splashed walls. Dunkin’ has a decidedly more low-brow, â€Å"everyman† kind of positioning. With its makeover, Dunkin’ plans to move upscale—a bit but notRead MoreIgbo Dictionary129408 Words   |  518 Pagesnames and reformatted the headings. I have added additional etymologies where they were known to me and substituted updated scientific names. One orthographic change is the substitution of the more easily understood Å‹ symbol for the velar nasal in place of the ‘n’ with ï€ ¤ superdot (n) in the manuscript. The photographs were inserted by the editor, deriving from fieldwork in Nigeria. I believe the ms. should be published in hard copy, but there are several reasons for not doing this at present. TheRead Morepreschool Essay46149 Words    |  185 PagesChildren receive opportunities to draw inspiration from the environment and their experiences to create and to communicate through art, individually and with others. Art engages English learners and children whose home culture might be different from the preschool culture. Participation in the arts helps children develop language skills. The social context of arts activities supports English learners, who can participate as their language skills develop. Participation in visual arts, musicRead MoreMarketing Management130471 Words   |  522 Pagesnormally considered as products and services, what is being marketed might include (a) ideas such as reducing air pollution or contributing to the red cross (b) people, such as new football coach or a political candidate and (c) places, such as industrial plant sites or a place to for a vocation. In a broad sense markets include more than the direct consumers of products services and ideas. Thus a state university’s market includes the legislators who provide funds, the citizens living near the universityRead MoreStrategic Marketing Management337596 Words   |  1351 Pagesemphasis to the organizational culture, but fails to provide guidance on which customers to serve and how to serve them. Equally, Drucker’s initial views failed to take explicit account of competitors and the discipline of profit in the analysis of product and market opportunity. It is because of this that customer orientat ion has been replaced with the broader concept of market orientation. Given this, we can see marketing operating at three levels: 1 Marketing as a culture, characterized by a set ofRead MoreContemporary Issues in Management Accounting211377 Words   |  846 PagesSchool, Carnegie Mellon University, and London School of Economics. He has also served as a consultant to CONTRIBUTORS xiii several private and public organizations. Dr Gordon’s former Ph.D. students are currently faculty members at such places as Stanford University, Ohio State University, McGill University, University of Southern California, College of William and Mary, Michigan State University, and National Taiwan University. Allan Hansen is Assistant Professor at the Copenhagen Business

Thursday, December 26, 2019

DBQ Opium in China Essay examples - 1745 Words

DBQ: Opium in China While most of the Western Hemisphere was undergoing drastic advancements, such as former colonies gaining their independence and transforming into more modernized nations, a lot of mishaps were occurring in the Eastern Hemisphere—China, specifically—a nation that was notorious for its isolation from foreign influences. European nations began to greedily eye China’s abundance of desirable resources, such as tea, porcelain, and silk. However, China had very little need or desire for European goods. In an attempt to resolve the trade imbalance Britain began importing opium into China, which would prove to be disastrous for the Chinese population. The dispute over the importation of the drug eventually led to the†¦show more content†¦He acknowledges that the Queen was surely too kind-hearted to impose that sort of treatment on another country, especially seeing as how she made each ship that went to Canto carry a document that said, â€Å"you shall not be p ermitted to carry contraband goods†. Thus, the Queen did not openly allow the trade of opium to continue, but failed to enforce the law. He implores her to make sure that the laws of the central dynasty were not violated again (Document 2). The perspective being shown is from a Chinese man who does not use opium, for he sees it as only causing harm. Lin Zexu was the imperial commissioner who was originally assigned to stop the opium trade in Canton. He was fiercely opposed to the exchange of opium and his actions were considered to be a major catalyst for the start of the Opium War. The emperor wrote to Zexu, â€Å"You have caused this war by your excessive zeal† (Document 6). By 1839, war was imminent. The opium trade had caused the reversal of the silver deficit, now putting an economic strain on China, while Britain’s economy flourished from the profit they were making off the drug. Because it was being illegally imported, all of the money was going directly t o Britain instead of to the Chinese government in the form of taxes. This caused a severe economic decline in China as unemployment rose, agriculture declined, and funding for public improvements diminished. During a public meeting in Canton, an agreement

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

The Never-Ending Financial Crisis of 2008 - 614 Words

Since it began in 2008, the US has faced what is being called the â€Å"great recession.† It is 2013, and it is clear apparent that it is a â€Å"recession† longing to be cured. Through the works of Putnam, Sum et. al., Wisman, and Colander, we can better understand this crisis and look for the best way to get out of it. To begin, Robert Putnam describes what has occurred in the U.S. over the past several decades. He states that over the past several decades the U.S. has been subject to â€Å"[an] economic and cultural [entanglement] a mixture of government, private sector, community and personal failings† (Putnam 2013, III). Putnam believes that this financial crisis occurred as a result of layoffs, and many closings of businesses (Putnam 2013, 2). We can further this understanding by turning to Sum, et. al., who believed that the crisis occurred due to the blue-collar workers who have lost their jobs, and might never see those jobs again (Sum, et. al. 2010, 6). Our next economist to turn to is John D. Wisman. In his article he describes what he believes to be the cause of the crisis. He states that this recession occurred centered upon inadequate regulation stemming from laissez-faire ideology, and low interest rates (Wisman 2013, 921). He further points out that an underlying effect of wage stagnation and dramatically increasing inequality in the US over the past 35 years may also be a cause. Now to the guy who wrote our current textbook, Macroeconomics 9th Edition, whoShow MoreRelatedToo Big to Fail: The 2008 World Financial Crisis and Its Aftermath1779 Words   |  7 Pagesï » ¿ Too big to fail: The 2008 world financial crisis and its aftermath The 2008 world financial crisis begin the banking and housing sector, but spread like a contagion through the entire economy. Many date the beginnings of the problems far back before 2008, back to the historically low interest rates put into place by the Federal Reserve in the wake of the last financial crisis. Interest rates plummeted after the boom and bust, followed by the attacks on the World Trade Center. ThisRead MoreLehman Brothers Case Study1703 Words   |  7 Pagesthe United States was the 2008 Lehman Brother’s case. A numerous amount of the general public lost their employment, while investors lost their money during this crisis. By the Lehman Brothers commercial real estate investments failing, they were not able to efficiently finance its operations. This was all because of the 2008 commercial mortgage financial disaster. In this research, I will use Assignments 1 research as the foundation to explain how the Lehman Brother crisis affects business, to gi veRead MoreFranks Explaination of the Main Characterstics in Obamas Inauguration Speech632 Words   |  3 Pagesof American Civil Religion. He surmises Obama sets out to create a multi-religious and racial American culture; this deviates from conventional westernized philosophy, which espouses that propositions cannot be simultaneously true and differences never coincide. Rhetoric, in contrary, deals with soft oppositions and is debatable, offering leeway for identities to reconcile. Myths have explanatory power to highlight values and trigger listeners into action. Furthermore, Frank conceives Obama’s experienceRead MoreQuestions On Mortgage Backed Securities And Credit Default Swaps1220 Words   |  5 Pages Mortgage backed securities and credit default swaps are words we often hear in reference to the Great Recession of 2008. In this paper, I will be discussing and analyzing an analogy Tim Harford uses to discuss the probability of buying a carton of eggs with an egg having a double-yolk to what mortgage-backed securities and credit-default swaps meant and represented. In chapter 6 of the updated book, The Undercover Economist, a lady named Fiona Exon is mentioned. In early 2010 she bought halfRead MoreThe Greece Crisis : Tragedy Or Opportunity?811 Words   |  4 PagesThe Greece Crisis ? Tragedy or Opportunity? Ram Subramonian (Buckeye Cohort), FT MBA ?17 How did Greece get into this difficult situation? Whose fault was it? Greece?s affair with the Euro began with huge hopes when it joined the multi-national currency zone in 2001. The, it went horribly wrong after that. At its core, the problems that face Greece today are to do with an economy reeling in debt and low productivity and in which, revenues don?t offset the massive piles of debt. So how did GreeceRead MoreDivided We Stand, United We Fall1496 Words   |  6 PagesDivided we stand, United we fall The European Crisis has become a never-ending commotion, which has been affecting the countries in the Eurozone since early 2009. A Combination of complex factors, including the globalization and low interest rates, increased the capacity of the high-risk lending and borrowing practices. This creates a huge imbalance in International trade, and hence, the great recession took place from the time of 2007-2008 putting the European union under great pressure. ThisRead MoreHistory Of Lehman Brothers By Henry Lehman1054 Words   |  5 Pagesbrokerage company distributing cotton. It opened offices in New York in 1858 and this gave the firm a stronger presence in the commodities trading, as well as it gave it a foothold in the financial community. During the construction of the railway, Lehman Brothers merged with Kuhn, Loeb Co and became the primary financial advisors and underwriters to the railroad industry. The company began financing emerging businesses such as airlines, o il and electric companies. Over its long existence, American ExpressRead MoreGreece Debt Crisis Analysis1434 Words   |  6 PagesWhen global financial and economic downturn hit Europe in 2008, some of its debt-ridden and deficit-bearing states were utterly ill-prepared. Greece, especially, became the crisis’s first and most abject victim (Pappas, 2013). In 2009, the incoming Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK) administration announced that the Greek government had been severely underreporting its deficit and debt. Both the domestic and international communities were at a loss at how to respond. Never before had the EurozoneRead MoreThe Relationship Between Economic And Urban Form1362 Words   |  6 Pagessupposition that if each unit met or exceeded its plan, then the demands and the supply would balance out one another. Just like the Nazi invasion, the central planning system allowed the Soviet leaders to assemble resources quickly during the time of crisis and to reindustrialize the country during the post-war period. The Soviet Union became a superpower with the help of the gradual development of its defence and the industrial base after the war. The economic system of the Soviet was in place for sixRead MoreElizabeth Warren, The Country s Leading Financial Policy Experts1683 Words   |  7 PagesElizabeth Warren, born Elizabeth Herring, is considered one of the country’s leading financial policy experts. Warren fights for lower and middle class families and works to protect them from large corporations and financial institutions. Originally she attended George Washington University, but she dropped out of college after two years to marry and follow her husband to Texas, where she finished her degree in speech pathology (, n.d.). While a mother of three and working as a speech